Spondylitis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Spondylitis, specifically ankylosing spondylitis, is due to vitamin B12 deficiency according to some studies. Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine and sacroiliac joints. Inflammation, pain, and stiffness in the affected areas are characteristics of it.

In this article, we will delve into the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for this condition. Spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the spine, causing pain, stiffness, and discomfort. We must know the intricacies of it, this valuable knowledge helps us manage and alleviate its effects.

Role of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency

One theory suggests that chronic inflammation associated with ankylosing spondylitis may disrupt the absorption and utilization of vitamin B12 in the body. Inflammation can affect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, where vitamin B12 is absorbed, leading to malabsorption and deficiency.

Additionally, some studies have found that individuals with ankylosing spondylitis may have higher levels of certain antibodies that target the cells that produce intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is a protein necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. The presence of these antibodies may interfere with the normal functioning of intrinsic factor, leading to decreased absorption of vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 plays a crucial role in the normal functioning of the nervous system, including the production of red blood cells and the maintenance of nerve health. Deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, numbness or tingling in the limbs, cognitive changes, and mood disturbances.

It’s important to note that not all individuals with spondylitis will have vitamin B12 deficiency, and not all individuals with vitamin B12 deficiency will have spondylitis. However, if you are suffering with ankylosing spondylitis or are experiencing symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional. They can evaluate your specific situation, conduct appropriate testing, and provide guidance on managing both conditions effectively.

What is Spondylitis?

Spondylitis is a form of arthritis that targets the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to inflammation and pain. It falls under a broader category known as spondyloarthritis, which encompasses several related conditions. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the most common type of spondylitis, characterized by fusion and rigidity of the spinal joints.

Causes of Spondylitis

The exact cause of spondylitis remains unknown, but it is believed to have a strong genetic component. The presence of a specific gene called HLA-B27 is associated with a higher risk of developing it. However, not everyone with the gene will develop the condition, indicating the involvement of other factors such as environmental triggers.

Symptoms of Spondylitis

1. Persistent Back Pain and Stiffness

One of the hallmark symptoms of spondylitis is chronic pain and stiffness in the back. This discomfort tends to worsen over time and is typically more pronounced in the mornings or after periods of inactivity. The pain may radiate from the lower back to the buttocks, hips, or thighs.

2. Reduced Range of Motion

As spondylitis progresses, it can limit the range of motion in the affected areas of the spine. This can make it challenging to perform everyday activities such as bending, twisting, or lifting. In severe cases, the spine may become fused, leading to a stooped posture.

3. Fatigue and Sleep Disturbances

Spondylitis can cause persistent fatigue due to the chronic inflammation and discomfort experienced by individuals. Sleep disturbances are also common, as finding a comfortable position may be difficult.

4. Eye Inflammation

In some cases, it can affect the eyes, leading to a condition called uveitis. Uveitis is characterized by eye inflammation, redness, pain, and increased sensitivity to light. If you experience any eye-related symptoms, it is crucial to seek medical attention promptly.

Treatment Options for Spondylitis

1. Medications

Medications play a key role in managing its symptoms and slowing down the progression of the disease. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed to alleviate pain and reduce inflammation. In more severe cases, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologic agents may be recommended.

2. Physical Therapy and Exercise

Physical therapy and regular exercise can help improve flexibility, strengthen muscles, and enhance overall joint function. Working with a trained physical therapist can provide you with a tailored exercise program that focuses on your specific needs.

3. Lifestyle Modifications

Certain lifestyle modifications can also aid in managing symptoms. Maintaining good posture, using ergonomic furniture, and practicing techniques such as heat or cold therapy can provide relief. Additionally, stress management techniques and a balanced diet can contribute to overall well-being.

4. Surgical Intervention

In rare cases where conservative measures fail to alleviate severe pain or correct deformities, surgical intervention may be considered. Procedures such as joint replacements or osteotomies can be performed to improve joint function and quality of life.

Researches & Outcome

Here are a few detailed extracts from research studies about this disease along with corresponding links to the full research articles:

  1. Title: “Genetic Factors and Pathogenesis of Spondylitis”
  • Extract: This study explores the genetic factors associated with spondylitis and investigates their role in the pathogenesis of the disease. It highlights the strong association between the HLA-B27 gene and its susceptibility, shedding light on the underlying mechanisms of the condition.
  • Read the full research article
  1. Title: “Inflammatory Pathways in Spondylitis: A Comprehensive Review”
  • Extract: This comprehensive review examines the inflammatory pathways involved in spondylitis, elucidating the key molecular mechanisms that contribute to the disease progression. It discusses the role of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukins, and chemokines, and their potential as therapeutic targets.
  • Read the full research article
  1. Title: “Diagnostic Imaging Modalities for Spondylitis: A Comparative Study”
  • Extract: This comparative study evaluates various diagnostic imaging modalities used in the assessment of spondylitis, including X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). It examines the sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of each modality in detecting spinal inflammation, joint involvement, and structural damage.
  • Read the full research article
  1. Title: “Biologic Therapies in the Management of Spondylitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis”
  • Extract: This systematic review and meta-analysis analyze the effectiveness of biologic therapies in the management of spondylitis. It provides a comprehensive evaluation of multiple clinical trials, comparing the efficacy and safety of different biologic agents in reducing disease activity, improving symptoms, and preventing structural damage.
  • Read the full research article


Spondylitis is a chronic condition that requires proper management to mitigate its impact on daily life. By understanding the causes, recognizing the symptoms, and exploring the available treatment options, individuals with spondylitis can take proactive steps towards improved well-being. Remember to consult with healthcare professionals for accurate diagnosis, personalized treatment plans, and ongoing support. Empower yourself with knowledge and embrace a comprehensive approach to managing spondylitis for a better quality of life.

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