Arthrithis : In this article, we will explore arthritis, its causes, symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatments in the fields of allopathy, Ayurveda, and homeopathy.
Firstly, we will discuss here the side effects, latest research and key extracts associated with this disease.
Section 1: Understanding Arthritis
Inflammation and stiffness in one or more joints are symptoms of arthritis. It may result in discomfort, swelliness, a restricted range of motion, and trouble going about your everyday business. Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis are a few examples of the various forms of it.
Definition and Types of Arthritis
Over 100 conditions that cause inflammation and injury to the joints, surrounding tissues, and other connective structures are collectively referred to as “arthritis”. The type of arthritis will determine the cause and symptoms.
The most prevalent forms of arthritis consist of:
- Osteoarthritis, sometimes known as “wear and tear” arthritis, occurs when persistent stress causes joint cartilage to deteriorate.
- Rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic autoimmune condition that affects joints and other body parts and results in persistent inflammation. It happens when the immune system assaults the joint capsule’s lining12.
- Gout, a form of arthritis marked by sudden bouts of excruciating pain, swelling, and redness3, which results from uric acid crystals accumulating in the joints.
- Some individuals with psoriasis, a skin illness that results in red areas with silvery scales, may experience psoriatic arthritis, a kind of inflammatory arthritis. Any joint in the body can be affected by psoriatic arthritis, which can also alter nails and cause irritation in the eyes and weariness.
- There are other additional kinds of arthritis, including lupus, juvenile idiopathic and viral arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Age, family history, obesity, injury, infection, and smoking are some risk factors for developing arthritis, although it can affect anyone.
Common Symptoms of Arthritis
Common symptoms of arthritis include joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and tenderness. The affected joints may also become red and warm to the touch. In some cases, this can lead to joint deformities and chronic pain.
Depending on the type of arthritis, the typical symptoms include stiffness and pain in the joints. Other symptoms that could manifest include joint pain, redness, and swelling.
a reduction in the affected joints range of motion.
Osteoarthritis patients may have grating or bone spurs in their joints. Fever, chills, and weariness (associated with viral or rheumatoid arthritis)
Rashes, spots, or nail issues on the skin (with psoriatic arthritis).
After being inactive for a while or in the morning, the symptoms could be worse. Depending on the type and stage of this disease, they may also differ in frequency and severity.
Section 2: Arthritis in Allopathy
Inflammation and discomfort in the joints are symptoms of arthritis. There are various forms of it, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Another name for traditional or contemporary Western medicine is allopathy. Based on scientific data, allopathic medicine employs drugs, surgery, and other procedures to treat symptoms and diseases.
The following are a few allopathic treatments for arthritis:
- Ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib are examples of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) that can be used to treat pain and inflammation.
- Disease-modifying antirheumatic medications (DMARDs) to decrease the course of rheumatoid arthritis, such as methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine
- Biological treatments for rheumatoid arthritis that block particular inflammatory pathways include etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab.
- Joint injections with hyaluronic acid, corticosteroids, or platelet-rich plasma to lubricate, cushion,
- or promote healing in the affected joint Physical therapy and occupational therapy to improve joint function
- and mobility Surgery like joint replacement, joint fusion, or synovectomy to repair or replace damaged joints
Allopathic medicine has the advantage of being non-invasive and regulated by the FDA. However, it may also have some risks or limitations, such as:
- Side effects or interactions of medications
- Allergic reactions or infections from surgery
- Resistance or tolerance to drugs
- Cost or availability of treatments
- Lack of focus on the root cause or holistic approach to health
Some people might favour complementary or alternative treatments for arthritis, such as homoeopathy or ayurveda.
These methods and ideas differ from allopathy in many ways. They might assert that they provide all-natural, customized, or holistic treatments for arthritis. However, they could also be deficient in terms of safety regulations, quality assurance, or scientific proof. If not utilized properly, they may also interact with allopathic medicines or make the situation worsen.
As a result, it is crucial to get the advice of a trained healthcare practitioner before beginning any arthritis treatment. They can assist you in weighing the advantages and drawbacks of many solutions to choose which is ideal for your needs and preferences.
Causes and Risk Factors
A series of illnesses that affect the joints and produce pain, stiffness, and inflammation are collectively referred to as arthritis. There are various forms of this disease, and each has a unique set of risk factors and causes. The following are a few of the most typical causes and risk factors for arthritis:
- Age: As people get older, their risk of developing most types of arthritis rises.
- Sex: Nearly 60% of patients with arthritis are women, making them more likely than men to get most kinds of arthritis. Gout and ankylosing spondylitis are more prevalent in men.
- Weight: Being overweight causes your joints to have more stress, which can cause arthritis.
- Injury: Past joint damage may leave a normal, smooth joint surface with abnormalities, which raises the chance of developing arthritis.
- Infection: Whether bacterial or viral, certain infections near the joint can cause cartilage to deteriorate or skin sores to develop that enter the synovial membrane and joint.
- Autoimmune factors: Some varieties of arthritis, including lupus, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis, are brought on by an aberrant immune response that targets your own tissues.
- Genetics: If your parents or siblings have arthritis, you may be more likely to get it yourself as some types of arthritis run in families. A few genetic markers, including HLA-B27 and HLA-DR4, have also been linked to some types of arthritis.
Diagnostic Tests for Arthritis in Allopathy
The word “allopathy” refers to conventional or mainstream medicine. Depending on the nature and severity of the problem, there are many diagnostic procedures for arthritis in allopathy. Common tests include the following:
Doctors look for warmth, redness, oedema, and range of motion in your joints.
Different body fluid types can be analysed to determine the type of arthritis you may have. Blood, urine, and joint fluid are among the fluids that are frequently tested.
Doctors prepare the area by cleaning and numbing it before inserting a needle to extract fluid from the joint space to obtain sample of joint fluid.
Blood Tests :
Antinuclear antibody, complement tests, total blood count, creatinine, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, rheumatoid factor, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies are a few of the specific blood tests that may be requested.
These exams can find issues within the joint that may be the source of your symptoms. X-rays, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, and arthroscopy are a few examples.
- X-rays can show cartilage loss, bone damage, and bone spurs.
- CT and MRI can visualize both bone and the surrounding soft tissues.
- Ultrasound can image soft tissues, cartilage, and fluid-containing structures near the joints.
- Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that allows doctors to see inside the joint using a small camera inserted through a small incision.
(1) Arthritis Diagnosis | Johns Hopkins Medicine. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/arthritis-diagnosis.
(2) Testing for Osteoarthritis| Arthritis Foundation. https://www.arthritis.org/diseases/more-about/tests-for-osteoarthritis.
Treatment Approaches in Allopathy
The phrase “allopathy” refers to conventional or mainstream medicine that treats symptoms and diseases with drugs, surgery, radiation, and other therapies and procedures. In allopathy, some of the typical treatment modalities for arthritis include:
This is used to lessen inflammation, lessen pain, and to delay or stop joint damage. Examples include corticosteroids, biologic medicines, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals (NSAIDs), and gout treatments.
Surgery and surgical procedures:
These are used to remove inflammatory tissue, fix broken bones, or replace damaged joints. Joint replacement, arthroscopy, synovectomy, and osteotomy are a few examples.
These are used to treat some kinds of arthritis, including ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis, and to lessen pain and inflammation.
Preventive therapy entails dietary adjustments and routine checkups to stop or slow the development of arthritis. Exercise, physical therapy, occupational therapy, quitting smoking, and dietary supplements are a few examples.
Section 3: Arthritis in Ayurveda
The holistic medical system known as Ayurveda, which has its roots in India, is built on the ideas of harmony, balance, and self-healing. According to Ayurveda, arthritis is a disorder brought on by an imbalance of the vata, pitta, and kapha doshas, or bodily energy. When a dosha is out of balance, it can result in a variety of physical and mental illnesses because each dosha has unique characteristics and functions.
Ayurvedic Perspective on Arthritis
According to Ayurveda, arthritis primarily affects the joints and bones and is a vata condition. The principles of movement, dryness, coolness, and lightness are embodied in vata. Vata can become aggravated and result in joint discomfort, stiffness, cracking, inflammation, and degeneration. Vata can also cause toxins to build up in the body and interfere with other doshas.
Numerous variables, including stress, trauma, injury, illness, obesity, a poor diet, inactivity, cold and dry weather, ageing, and genetic susceptibility, can contribute to vata imbalance and arthritis. In Ayurveda, various forms of arthritis are recognised according to the prevailing dosha that is present. For instance:
Arthritis of the vata type The symptoms of this include excruciating pain, cracking noises, stiffness, and movement problems. The joints could feel swollen and chilly to the touch. The pain is exacerbated by cold and dry weather and is greater in the morning and at night. Additionally, the person may experience uneasiness, anxiety, sleeplessness, and constipation.
This type of arthritis causes inflammation, heat, redness, and burning pain in the joints. The agony is made worse by the heat and humidity of the day. Additionally, the person may have skin rashes, a fever, thirst, irritability, and wrath.
The symptoms of kapha-type arthritis include dull pain, joint heaviness, stiffness, and edoema. The pain is exacerbated by cold and wet conditions and is greater in the morning. Additionally, the individual may experience weight gain, fatigue, depression, mucus congestion, and diabetes.
Diet, way of life, herbs, massage, yoga, meditation, panchakarma (detoxification), and rasayana (rejuvenation) therapies are all part of ayurveda’s holistic approach to treating arthritis. In order to alleviate swelling and pain, balance the doshas, remove ama or poisons from the body,
Herbal Remedies and Dietary Changes for Arthritis
Some natural methods for reducing arthritis pain and inflammation include herbal treatments and dietary modifications. The following are a few herbal treatments for arthritis:
This plant can be consumed as a supplement or administered topically as a gel and has anti-inflammatory qualities.
This resin, commonly known as frankincense, can be consumed as a capsule or used topically as a cream and has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.
Cat’s claw :
Cat’s Claw is a vine that may be consumed as a tea or a pill and has immune-boosting and anti-inflammatory qualities.
This plant can be utilised as an essential oil or a topical ointment and has anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects.
This root can be consumed as a pill, tea, fresh or dried root, and contains anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities.
This beverage can be consumed as a tea or as a supplement and contains anti-inflammatory and antioxidant qualities.
Thunder god vine:
This plant can be consumed as a pill or an extract and has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive qualities.
With its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics, turmeric is a spice that can be consumed as a pill, drink, or fresh or dried root.
Willow bark is a plant that can be consumed as a pill, tea, or tincture and has anti-inflammatory and analgesic qualities.
Dietary Modifications :
Consuming more fruits and vegetables can help reduce inflammation and protect the joints because these foods are high in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and fibre. Berries, cherries, citrus fruits, leafy greens, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and garlic are some of the greatest fruits and vegetables for arthritis.
Omega-3 fatty acid
Eat more omega-3 fatty acid rich diet because it requires omega-3 fatty acids that can aid with joint pain and inflammation reduction.
Consume More Nuts & Seeds
Consuming more nuts and seeds can help reduce inflammation and support the joints as they are rich in antioxidants, fibre, protein, and healthy fats. Walnuts, almonds, pistachios, flaxseeds, chia seeds, and hemp seeds are some of the best nuts and seeds for arthritis.
Eating fewer processed meals will help your arthritis symptoms because processed foods are heavy in refined carbs, sugars, fats, salt, and additives that can exacerbate inflammation.
White bread, pastries, cakes, cookies, candies, drinks, chips, crackers, fried foods, fast foods, and processed meats contribute to worsened arthritis symptoms.
Lifestyle Modifications and Panchakarma for Arthritis
Herbal remedies and dietary changes are some of the natural ways to support arthritis pain and inflammation.
Some of the herbal remedies that may help with arthritis include:
The gel or supplement made from this plant possesses anti-inflammatory properties, making it suitable for topical application or oral consumption.
This resin, frankincense, possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. You can take it as a capsule or apply it as a cream.
This vine has anti-inflammatory and immune-boosting properties and one can take it as a capsule or tea .
This plant has anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties and one can use it as an essential oil or a topical ointment .
This root has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and one can use it as a capsule, tea, or fresh or dried root .
This beverage has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, one can use it as a tea or a supplement .
Thunder god vine:
This plant has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties and one can use it as a capsule or extract .
This spice has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and one can use it as a capsule, tea, or fresh or dried root .
This plant has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and one can use it as a capsule, tea, or tincture .
Some of the dietary changes that may help with arthritis include:
Eating more fruits and vegetables:
These foods are rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and fibre that can help reduce inflammation and protect the joints . Some of the best fruits and vegetables for arthritis are berries, cherries, citrus fruits, leafy greens, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and garlic.
Eating more fish:
Fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which can help reduce inflammation and pain in the joints. Some of the best fish for arthritis are salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring, and sardines.
Eating more nuts and seeds:
Nuts and seeds are high in healthy fats, protein, fibre, and antioxidants that can help reduce inflammation and support the joints. Some of the best nuts and seeds for arthritis are walnuts, almonds, pistachios, flaxseeds, chia seeds, and hemp seeds.
Eating less processed foods:
Processed foods are high in refined carbohydrates, sugars, fats, salt, and additives that can increase inflammation and worsen symptoms of this disease.
Some of the worst processed foods for this disease are white bread, pastries, cakes, cookies, candy, soda, chips, crackers, fried foods, fast foods, and processed meats.
Section 4: Arthritis in Homeopathy
Homeopathy is a system of medicine that uses highly diluted substances to stimulate the body’s natural healing process. According to some sources, homeopathy can help treat arthritis by reducing inflammation, pain and swelling in the joints.
Some of the common homeopathic medicines for arthritis are:
for pain with inflammation that is worse by movement and better by moderate pressure and rest.
For acute arthritis with red, shiny and swollen joints that are sensitive to touch and heat.
For stiffness and pain in joints that are worse by cold and damp weather and better by warmth and motion.
For gouty arthritis with intense pain and swelling in the big toe or other joints that are worse by slightest touch or movement.
For rheumatic arthritis with pain and swelling in small joints that are worse by heat and better by cold applications.
However, homeopathy treatment of arthritis requires individualization of the case and selection of the most suitable remedy based on the symptoms and constitution of the person .
Therefore, it is advisable to consult a qualified homeopath before taking any homeopathic medicine for arthritis.
Principles of Homeopathic Treatment for Arthritis
Homeopathy is a system of alternative medicine that uses natural substances to treat various health conditions. According to some sources , homeopathy can be beneficial for arthritis, which is an inflammatory disease of the joints. Homeopathy for treatment of this disease is based on the following principles :
- Homeopathic medicines : prepared from plants, minerals, animal products, or other natural sources. They use natural substances in their formulation.
- In homeopathy, the principle of “like cures like” guides the selection of remedies.
- Symptoms of the patient must match with a substance that can cause similar symptoms in a healthy person. This principle suggests that such a substance can cure those symptoms in a sick person.
- Homeopathic remedies undergo a process of dilution and succussion.
- Homeopathic Medicines used in dilution form in water or alcohol and vigorously shaken.
- The potency of the Homeopathic remedies potentised.
- By diluting and succussing them, practitioners make homeopathic medicines stronger.
Commonly Used Homeopathic Remedies for Arthritis
- Aconite: All of a sudden onset of inflammation and pain in joints, especially after exposure to cold or dry weather.
- Actaea Spicata: For pain affecting small joints, especially the wrist and fingers, with swelling and stiffness.
- Agaricus: For pain with burning and itching sensations, worse from cold and better from warmth.
- Bryonia: For pain with intense pain and inflammation, worse from any movement and better from rest and pressure.
- Calcarea Carb: For pain affecting large joints, especially the knees and hips, with cracking noises and weakness.
- Rhus Tox: For pain with stiffness and pain, worse from rest and cold and better from warmth and gentle motion.
- Ruta: For arthritis affecting tendons and ligaments, with soreness and bruising.
- Lithium Carb: For arthritis with uric acid deposits in joints, causing gouty inflammation and pain.
Homeopathy for arthritis, one should take it under the guidance of a qualified homeopath who can prescribe the most suitable remedy based on the individual case.
Homeopathy when combined with other natural therapies like aromatherapy, physiotherapy, or acupuncture for better results.
Individualized Treatment Approach for Arthritis
The topic of individualised treatment approaches for arthritis comprises a number of variables and possibilities. Following are some salient details from the search results:
- For the pharmacologic therapy of rheumatoid arthritis in 2021, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has released revised guidelines. The recommendations cover the use of several DMARDs (disease-modifying antirheumatic medications), glucocorticoids, and DMARDs in specific high-risk populations. The suggestions are supported by a thorough analysis of the available literature and an agreement among doctors and patients. The recommendations emphasise the value of personalized treatment regimens based on the values, goals, preferences, and comorbidities of patients.
- In addition to being influenced by articular pathology, persistent arthritic pain can also be brought on by psychological, social, and environmental variables. A multidisciplinary strategy combining pharmacological, non-pharmacological, and surgical therapies is necessary to treat arthritis pain. Pharmacological therapy should work to decrease pain, lessen inflammation, and stop or delay joint deterioration. Education, physical activity, weight management, physical therapy, and psychological support should all be included in the non-pharmacological treatment. When non-surgical treatments are unable to relieve symptoms or restore function, surgery should be considered.
Non Pharmacological Treatments of Arthritis:
Some examples of non-pharmacological treatments for arthritis are:
This involves providing information and guidance to patients about their condition, treatment options, self-management strategies, and coping skills. Patient education can help improve patients’ knowledge, adherence, self-efficacy, and outcomes.
These include cognitive-behavioural therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction, relaxation techniques, and social support. Psychosocial interventions can help reduce pain, depression, anxiety, and disability in patients with arthritis.
Physical activity and exercise for treatment of Arthritis:
These include aerobic exercise, strength training, flexibility exercises, and balance exercises. Exercise & phyisical activities can help improve pain, function, mood, quality of life, and cardiovascular health in patients with arthritis. Physical activity can also prevent or reduce obesity, which is a risk factor for arthritis.
Physical and occupational therapy:
These include interventions that aim to improve joint mobility, muscle strength, posture, gait, and activities of daily living. Physical and occupational therapy can also provide assistive devices, splints, orthoses, and ergonomic advice to help patients with arthritis perform their tasks more comfortably and safely.
Nutritional and dietary counseling:
This involves providing advice on healthy eating habits, weight management, and specific diets or supplements that may have beneficial effects on arthritis. Nutritional and dietary counseling can help improve inflammation, pain, function, and comorbidities in patients with arthritis.
Section 5: Side Effects and Safety Considerations about Arthritis Medications and Treatments
Potential Side Effects of Allopathic Treatments
Allopathic treatments for arthritis are drugs that doctors prescribe to address the disease’s signs, symptoms, and underlying causes. They consist of:
– Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): These medications work by preventing the synthesis of prostaglandins to lessen inflammation and pain. Ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, celecoxib, and etoricoxib are some of them. Gastrointestinal bleeding, cardiovascular problems, kidney damage, and liver toxicity are a few possible NSAID adverse effects.
Side Effects of Corticosteroids:
These medications imitate the effects of cortisol, a hormone that controls immunological reactions and inflammation. Prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone are some of them. Weight gain, osteoporosis, diabetes, infections, cataracts, and mood swings are a few possible side effects of corticosteroids, according to research.
Side Effects of Disease-modifying antirheumatic medications (DMARDs):
These medications weaken the immune system to alter the course of the illness and – Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs): These are drugs that modify the course of the disease by suppressing the immune system and preventing joint damage. They include methotrexate, sulfasalazine, leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine. Some potential side effects of DMARDs are liver toxicity, bone marrow suppression, infections, lung problems, and skin reactions^3^.
Side Effects of Biologic agents:
These are drugs that target specific molecules involved in inflammation and immune responses. They include tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, interleukin (IL) inhibitors, B-cell depleting agents, T-cell co-stimulation blockers, and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors. Some potential side effects of biologic agents are infections, infusion reactions, allergic reactions, malignancies, and demyelinating diseases.
Side Effects of Anti-rheumatic medications:
Anti Rheumatic medications that alter the course of the disease by reducing immune activity and preventing joint destruction are known as DMARDs. They consist of leflunomide, hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and azathioprine. Liver toxicity, bone marrow suppression, infections, lung issues, and skin responses are a few possible side effects of DMARDs.
Side Effects of Biologic agents:
These medications target certain molecules involved in immune responses and inflammation. They consist of interleukin (IL), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), B-cell depleting drugs, T-cell co-stimulation blockers, and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors, among others. Infections, infusion responses, allergic reactions, malignancies, and demyelinating disorders are a few possible side effects of biologic drugs.
Safety of Ayurvedic Approaches
Homoeopathy and Ayurveda are two examples of ancient medicine that have their roots in India. They are founded on various theories and approaches to diagnosis and therapy. They advertise that they provide all-natural remedies for ailments including arthritis.
- Ayurvedic medicine balances the three doshas (vata, pitta, and kapha) in the body. Ayurveda believed to control the physical, mental, and emotional aspects of health. In order to restore equilibrium and prevent or treat ailments, ayurvedic medicine employs a variety of methods, including herbal medicines, dietary adjustments, massage, yoga, meditation, and cleansing.
- When used under the supervision of a licenced and skilled practitioner, ayurvedic medicine can be both safe and efficient. But certain Ayurvedic remedies could include poisonous heavy metals like lead, mercury, or arsenic that can be fatal if consumed. Some Ayurvedic herbs may also interact with other prescription drugs or dietary supplements, or they may give some people allergic reactions or negative side effects.
Safety of and Homeopathic
A chemical that generates symptoms in a healthy person can treat the same symptoms in a sick person. In homoeopathic medicine, the principle of “like cures like” is the theory on which Homoeopathy works. Homoeopathic treatments select remedies based on the unique traits and symptoms of the patient.
These remedies are very diluted compounds, manufactured in accordance with set guidelines.
- The effectiveness, dose, duration, and manner of administration of the items or therapies may affect the safety and adverse effects of Ayurvedic and Homoeopathic methods. Following are a few highlights from the search results:
- When utilised with a skilled and experienced practitioner’s guidance, homoeopathic medicine can be secure and harmless. Unknown components like allergens or pollutants, which might result in severe reactions or infections, may be present in some homoeopathic remedies. Some homoeopathic treatments may also interact negatively with other prescription drugs or dietary supplements, or they may make some people’s symptoms worse.
Section 6: Latest Research and Extracts about Arthritis
There is ongoing research to find new and better ways to treat arthritis and improve the quality of life of patients. Here are some main points from the search results:
JAK inhibitors offer relief:
JAK inhibitors are a new class of drugs that target the Janus kinase (JAK) enzymes, which are involved in inflammation and immune responses. They can reduce the symptoms and slow down the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), especially in patients who do not respond well to other medications.
To date, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved three types of JAK inhibitors to treat RA:
- tofacitinib (Xeljanz), approved in 2012;
- baricitinib (Olumiant), approved in 2018; and
- upadacitinib (Rinvoq), approved in 2019.
BTK inhibitor in development:
Another new class of drugs that targets the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) enzyme, involved in inflammation and immune responses, is the BTK inhibitor.
It can potentially treat RA and other inflammatory diseases by blocking the activation of B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produce antibodies.
A phase 2 clinical trial showed that a BTK inhibitor called fenebrutinib was safe and effective in reducing the signs and symptoms of RA in patients who had an inadequate response to methotrexate, a common medication for RA.
Neurostimulation shows promise:
- Neurostimulation is a technique that uses electrical impulses to stimulate specific nerves or brain regions. It can potentially treat RA by modulating the activity of the vagus nerve, which is a nerve that connects the brain to various organs and regulates inflammation and immune responses. A pilot study showed that a device called gammaCore, which delivers noninvasive vagus nerve stimulation through the skin of the neck, was safe and effective in reducing pain and inflammation in patients with RA.
RA medications linked to heart health benefits in Arthritis:
- RA medications are drugs that treat RA by suppressing inflammation and immune responses. In patients with RA, a meta-analysis of 15 observational studies demonstrated that RA medications, including methotrexate, TNF inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, abatacept, rituximab, and hydroxychloroquine, reduced the risk of cardiovascular events or mortality. These medications exert their beneficial effects on cardiovascular health by targeting inflammation and immune responses, which play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular diseases.
Promising Extracts in Arthritis Research in Ayurveda
Turmeric extracts and curcumin for alleviating the symptoms of arthritis:
- Turmeric is a spice that contains curcumin, which is a compound that has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. It can potentially help treat arthritis by reducing joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and inflammation. A meta-analysis of eight randomized controlled trials showed that turmeric extracts or curcumin were effective in alleviating the symptoms of arthritis compared to placebo.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids,
- Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Flaxseed oil, walnuts, and other foods contain it. They can potentially help treat RA by reducing joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and tenderness. A meta-analysis of 23 randomized controlled trials showed that omega-3 fatty acids supplementation had a moderate effect on improving RA symptoms compared to placebo.
There are several different ways to treat arthritis, which is a complex disorder that affects the joints. Homoeopathy, Ayurveda, and allopathy each provide unique viewpoints and approaches to treating arthritis. Making decisions about managing arthritis efficiently and safely requires seeking the advice of healthcare professionals and staying current on the most recent research.
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